Patient Education

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, affects approximately 20 percent of people of all ages. The most common symptoms include nasal itching, watery nasal discharge, sneezing, itchy red eyes, sore throat, or hoarse voice. Allergic rhinitis is caused by a nasal reaction to small airborne particles called allergens (substances that cause an allergic reaction). In some people, these particles also cause reactions in the lungs (asthma), and eyes (allergic conjunctivitis).


Asthma is a common lung disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is caused by narrowing of the airways (breathing tubes) in the lungs. This narrowing is partially or completely reversible. Symptoms of asthma include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms tend to come and go, and are related to the degree of airway narrowing in the lungs. The airways are sensitive to a variety of stimuli, which may include viral illnesses (eg, the common cold), allergens, exercise, medicines, or environmental conditions.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a condition in which the airways in the lungs become damaged, making it increasingly difficult for air to pass in and out. There are two major kinds of damage that can cause COPD: The airways in the lungs can become scarred and narrowed, or the air sacs in the lung, where oxygen is absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is excreted, can become damaged.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The number of people who die from lung cancer each year has risen over the past 25 years. The number of people who die from lung cancer is greater than the number of people who die from breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer combined. Several factors increase the risk of lung cancer, particularly cigarette smoking.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a blood clot dislodges from a vein, travels through the veins of the body, and lodges in the lung. Most blood clots (thrombi) originally form in one of the deep veins of the legs, thighs, or pelvis; this condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT).


Pediatric vaccine programs in the United States have been extremely successful against a range of contagious diseases, including measles, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis; fewer than 500 children die in the US each year of vaccine preventable diseases.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a condition that makes you stop breathing for short periods while you are asleep. There are 2 types of sleep apnea. One is called obstructive sleep apnea and the other is called central sleep apnea. In obstructive sleep apnea, you stop breathing because your throat narrows or closes. In central sleep apnea, you stop breathing because your brain does not send the right signals to your muscles to make you breath. People with sleep apnea do not know that they stop breathing when they are asleep. But they do sometimes wake up startled or gasping for breath. They also often hear from loved ones that they snore. The main symptoms of sleep apnea are loud snoring, tiredness, and daytime sleepiness. Some people with sleep apnea don’t have symptoms, or they don’t know they have them. They might figure that it’s normal to be tired or to snore a lot.

Restless Legs Syndrome

People who have RLS get an uncomfortable feeling in their legs when they are at rest. They describe this feeling as crawling, creeping, pulling or itching. And they say the feeling is deep in the legs—not on the skin—usually below the knees. These symptoms usually get worse as they day moves on, and they are worst at night. But people can make the feeling go away temporarily if they kick or move their legs. Some people with RLS find that their legs move on their own while they are asleep. . In some cases, RLS happens on its own and seems to be passed on in families. In other cases, the condition seems to be linked to other medical problems. For instance, a condition called “anemia:, in where there is too little iron the blood. Other conditions that increase the risk of RLS include kidney disease, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Pregnancy seems to increase a woman’s risk of developing RLS too. The symptoms of RLS can make it hard to get a good nights sleep. People with the condition often feel tired during the day.

Recommended Reading:

1. Smoking Cessation:

2. Lung disease including asthma, COPD, lung cancer: or

3. Sleep disorders:

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